Birth of a child process

Part 4 of serie Writing a container in Rust

In this post, we're going to clone the parent process of our container into a child process.

Before that can happend, we'll set up the ground by preparing some inter-process communication channels allowing us to interact with the child process we're going to create.

Inter-process communication (IPC) with sockets

Introduction to IPC

When it comes to inter-process communication (or IPC for short), the Unix domain sockets or "same host socket communication" is the solution. They differ from the "network socket communication" kind of sockets that are used to perform network operations with remote hosts.

You can find a really nice article about sockets and IPC here It consists in practice of a file (Unix philosophy: everything is a file) In which we're going to read or write, to transfer information from one process to another.

For our tool, we don't need any fancy IPC, but we want to be able to transfer simple boolean to / from our child process.

Create a socketpair

Creating a pair of sockets will allow us to give one to the child process, and one to the parent process.

a pair of sockets

This way we'll be able to transfer raw binary data from one process to the other the same way we write binary data into a file stored in a filesystem.

Let's create a new file src/ containing everything related to IPC:

use crate::errors::Errcode;
use std::os::unix::io::RawFd;
use nix::sys::socket::{socketpair, AddressFamily, SockType, SockFlag, send, MsgFlags, recv};
pub fn generate_socketpair() -> Result<(RawFd, RawFd), Errcode> {
    match socketpair(
            Ok(res) => Ok(res),
            Err(_) => Err(Errcode::SocketError(0))

We create a generate_socketpair function in which we call the socketpair function, which is the standard Unix way of creating socket pairs, but called from Rust.

As we use a new Errcode::SocketError variant, let's add it to src/ now:

 pub enum Errcode{
    // ...

Adding the sockets to the container config

When creating the configuration, let's generate our socketpair and add it to the ContainerOpts data so the child process can access to it easily. In the src/ file:

use crate::ipc::generate_socketpair;
// ...
use std::os::unix::io::RawFd;
pub struct ContainerOpts{
    // ...
    pub fd:         RawFd,
    // ...

Also let's modify the ContainerOpts::new function so it returns the sockets along with the constructed ContainerOpts struct, the parent container needs to get access to it.

impl ContainerOpts{
    pub fn new(command: String, uid: u32, mount_dir: PathBuf) -> Result<(ContainerOpts, (RawFd, RawFd)), Errcode> {
        let sockets = generate_socketpair()?;
        // ...
            ContainerOpts {
                // ...
                fd: sockets.1.clone(),

Adding to the container, setting up the cleaning

In our container implementation, let's add a field in the Container struct to be able to access the sockets more easily. In the file src/

use nix::unistd::close;
use std::os::unix::io::RawFd;
// ...
pub struct Container{
    sockets: (RawFd, RawFd),
    config: ContainerOpts,
impl Container {
    pub fn new(args: Args) -> Result<Container, Errcode> {
        let (config, sockets) = ContainerOpts::new(
            // ...
        Ok(Container {

As sockets requires some cleaning before exit, let's close them in the clean_exit function.

pub fn clean_exit(&mut self) -> Result<(), Errcode>{
    // ...
    if let Err(e) = close(self.sockets.0){
        log::error!("Unable to close write socket: {:?}", e);
        return Err(Errcode::SocketError(3));
    if let Err(e) = close(self.sockets.1){
        log::error!("Unable to close read socket: {:?}", e);
        return Err(Errcode::SocketError(4));
    // ...

Creating wrappers for IPC

To ease the use of the sockets, let's create two wrappers to ease the use. We only want to transfer boolean, so let's create a send_boolean and recv_boolean function in src/

pub fn send_boolean(fd: RawFd, boolean: bool) -> Result<(), Errcode> {
    let data: [u8; 1] = [boolean.into()];
    if let Err(e) = send(fd, &data, MsgFlags::empty()) {
        log::error!("Cannot send boolean through socket: {:?}", e);
        return Err(Errcode::SocketError(1));
pub fn recv_boolean(fd: RawFd) -> Result<bool, Errcode> {
    let mut data: [u8; 1] = [0];
    if let Err(e) = recv(fd, &mut data, MsgFlags::empty()) {
        log::error!("Cannot receive boolean from socket: {:?}", e);
        return Err(Errcode::SocketError(2));
    Ok(data[0] == 1)

Here it's just some interacting with the send and recv functions from the nix crate, handling data types conversion, etc... There's nothing much to say about it, but it's still interesting how we can interact with functions that has a low-level C backend from Rust.

We won't use the wrappers for now, but they'll come handy later.

Patch for this step

The code for this step is available on github litchipi/crabcan branch “step7”.
The raw patch to apply on the previous step can be found here

Cloning a process

In order to regroup everything related to the cloning and management of the child process, let's create a new module child in a file src/ First of all, define the modules in src/

mod config;
mod child;

We can also create new types of errors to deal with anything going wrong in our child process generation or anything during the preparation inside the container, and add them to src/

pub enum Errcode {

Creating a child process

For now, we create a dummy child function simply echoing the arguments it will execute. We create the function in src/

fn child(config: ContainerOpts) -> isize {
    log::info!("Starting container with command {} and args {:?}", config.path.to_str().unwrap(), config.argv);

The child process simply outputs something to stdout, and returns 0 as a signal that nothing went wrong. We also pass it some configuration in which we'll be able to bundle everything we want our child process to acknowledge.

Then we create the function cloning the parent process and calling the child, still in src/

use crate::errors::Errcode;
use crate::config::ContainerOpts;
use nix::unistd::Pid;
use nix::sched::clone;
use nix::sys::signal::Signal;
use nix::sched::CloneFlags;
const STACK_SIZE: usize = 1024 * 1024;
pub fn generate_child_process(config: ContainerOpts) -> Result<Pid, Errcode> {
    let mut tmp_stack: [u8; STACK_SIZE] = [0; STACK_SIZE];
    let mut flags = CloneFlags::empty();
    // Flags definition
    match clone(
        Box::new(|| child(config.clone())),
        &mut tmp_stack,
        Some(Signal::SIGCHLD as i32)
         Ok(pid) => Ok(pid),
         Err(_) => Err(Errcode::ChildProcessError(0))

Let's split this code to understand it properly:

  • We first allocate a raw array (aka buffer) of size STACK_SIZE that we define of size 1KiB.This buffer will hold the stack of the child process, note that this is differentfrom the original C clone function (as detailed in the nix::sched::clone documentation)
  • Secondly we will set the flags we want to activate, a complete list of the flags and their simple description is availablein the nix::sched::CloneFlags documentation, or directly in the linux manual for clone(2).I'll skip the flags definition for their own separate parts as they deserve some proper explanation.
  • We then call the clone syscall, redirecting to our child function, with our config structas an argument, the temporary stack for the process, the flags we set, along with the instruction tosend the parent process a SIGCHLD signal when the child exits.
  • If everything goes well, we get a process ID, or PID in short, a number identifying uniquely ourprocess for the Linux kernel. We return this pid as we will store it in our container struct.

A word about namespaces

If you don't know what Linux namespaces are, I recommend reading the Wikipedia article about it for a quick and somewhat complete introduction.

In one line, a namespace is an isolation provided by the Linux kernel to allow a process in this namespace to have a different version of a resource than the global system.

In practice:

  • Network namespace: Have a different network configuration than the whole system
  • Host namespace: Have a different hostname than the whole system
  • PID: Use any PID numbers inside the namespace, including the init one (PID = 1)
  • And many others ...

Check out the linux manual for namespaces for more details about namespaces.

Setting the flags

Back to our child cloning preparation, each flag will create a new namespace for the child process, for the given namespace. If a flag is not set, usually the namespace the child will be part of will be the one from the parent process.

Here is the complete code:

    let mut flags = CloneFlags::empty();

- CLONE_NEWNS will start the cloned child in a new mount namespace, initialized with a copy of the namespace from the parent process.
Check the mount-namespaces manual for more information

- CLONE_NEWCGROUP will start the cloned child in a new cgroup namespace.
Cgroups are explained a bit later in the tutorial as we will use them to restrict the capabilities our child process have.
Check the cgroup-namespaces manual for more information

- CLONE_NEWPID will start the cloned child in a new pid namespace.
This basically mean that our child process will think he will have a PID = X, but in reality in the Linux kernel he will have another one.
Check the pid-namespaces manual for more information

- CLONE_NEWIPC will start the cloned child in a new ipc namespace.
Processes inside this namespace can interact with each other, whereas processes outside cannot through normal IPC methods.
Check the ipc-namespaces manual for more information

- CLONE_NEWNET will start the cloned child in a new network namespace.
It will not share the interfaces and network configurations from other namespaces.
Check the network-namespaces manual for more information

- CLONE_NEWUTS will start the cloned child in a new uts namespace.
I cannot explain why the name UTS (UTS stands for UNIX Timesharing System), but it will allow the contained process to set its own hostname and NIS domain name in the namespace.
Check the uts-namespaces manual for more information

So while creating our child, we will separate its world from the one of the system, allowing it to modify whatever it wants (at least for the namespaces used) without harming the configuration of our system.

Generate the child from the container

Now that we have our clean generate_child_process function, we can call it in the create function of our container, and store the resulting pid in the struct fields.

In src/, add:

use crate::child::generate_child_process;
use nix::unistd::Pid;
use nix::sys::wait::waitpid;
pub struct Container {
    // ...
    child_pid: Option<Pid>,
impl Container {
    pub fn new(args: Args) -> Result<Container, Errcode> {
        // ...
        Ok(Container {
            child_pid: None,
    pub fn create(&mut self) -> Result<(), Errcode> {
        let pid = generate_child_process(self.config.clone())?;
        self.child_pid = Some(pid);
        log::debug!("Creation finished");
    // ...

Waiting for the child to finish

Now that our container contains everything to generate a new clean child process, we will update the main function to wait for the child to finish.
In src/

pub fn start(args: Args) -> Result<(), Errcode> {
    if let Err(e) = container.create(){
        // ...
    log::debug!("Container child PID: {:?}", container.child_pid);
    // ...

This way, the container generate the child process using the arguments we give to it, then hold and wait for the child to end before quitting.

The function wait_child is defined in src/ like so:

pub fn wait_child(pid: Option<Pid>) -> Result<(), Errcode>{
    if let Some(child_pid) = pid {
        log::debug!("Waiting for child (pid {}) to finish", child_pid);
        if let Err(e) = waitpid(child_pid, None){
            log::error!("Error while waiting for pid to finish: {:?}", e);
            return Err(Errcode::ContainerError(1));

This function uses the syscall waitpid, from the manual:

The waitpid() system call suspends execution of the calling process until a child specified by pid argument has changed state. By default, waitpid() waits only for terminated children, but this behavior is modifiable via the options argument, as described below.

As we wait for the termination, we will just pass None as options, and return a Errcode::ContainerError error if the syscall didn't finished successfully.


Maybe since the beginning you were wondering why we need sudo to run our tests, in the first 7 steps that wasn't necessary, but here as we create new namespaces for our child process, theCAP_SYS_ADMIN capacity is needed (See the manual for capabilities or this article from LWN ).

Here's the output we can get from testing this step:

[2021-11-12T08:52:17Z INFO  crabcan] Args { debug: true, command: "/bin/bash", uid: 0, mount_dir: "./mountdir/" }
[2021-11-12T08:52:17Z DEBUG crabcan::container] Linux release: 5.11.0-38-generic
[2021-11-12T08:52:17Z DEBUG crabcan::container] Container sockets: (3, 4)
[2021-11-12T08:52:17Z DEBUG crabcan::container] Creation finished
[2021-11-12T08:52:17Z DEBUG crabcan::container] Container child PID: Some(Pid(134400))
[2021-11-12T08:52:17Z DEBUG crabcan::container] Waiting for child (pid 134400) to finish
[2021-11-12T08:52:17Z INFO  crabcan::child] Starting container with command /bin/bash and args ["/bin/bash"]
[2021-11-12T08:52:17Z DEBUG crabcan::container] Finished, cleaning & exit
[2021-11-12T08:52:17Z DEBUG crabcan::container] Cleaning container
[2021-11-12T08:52:17Z DEBUG crabcan::errors] Exit without any error, returning 0

Patch for this step

The code for this step is available on github litchipi/crabcan branch “step8”.
The raw patch to apply on the previous step can be found here

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